This application note describes the extraction of 96 licit and illicit drugs of abuse from urine prior to UPLC-MS/MS analysis using EVOLUTE® HYDRO CX 96-well plates. EVOLUTE® HYDRO CX plates offer an efficient way to perform hydrolysis in the well of the extraction plate. This method provides high analyte recovery, reduced extraction time due to the elimination of a sample transfer step as well as the elimination of the column conditioning and equilibration steps, and a reduced risk for sample carryover or cross-contamination due to the elimination of the sample transfer step.
6-acetyl codeine 6-acetylmorphine (MAM) 7-Aminoclonazepam 7-Aminoflunitrazepam 96-well plate Alprazolam Amitriptyline Amphetamine Amphetamines Analgesics Application Notes Aripiprazole Atomoxetine Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Benzoylecgonine Buprenorphine Bupropion Buspirone Butalbital Carbamate hypnotic Carbamate muscle relaxant Carbamates Carbazepine Carisoprodol Chlordiazepoxide Chlorpheniramine Chlorpromazine Clinical Clomipramine Clonazepam Clonidine Clozapine Cocaethylene Cocaine Cocaines Codeine Cyclobenzaprine Desalkylflurazepam Designer stimulants Dextromethorphan Diazepam Dihydrocodeine (DHC) Drugs of Abuse Duloxetine EDDP English Ethyl Sulfate (EtS) Extrahera Fentanyl Fluoxetine Forensic Gabapentin Haloperidol Hydrocodone Hydrolysed urine Hydromorphone Hydroxyalprazolam Hydroxybupropion Hydroxymidazolam Hydroxytriazolam Imipramine Ketamine LC-MS/MS Lamotrigine Levetiracetam Lidocaine Lorazepam MDA MDEA MDMA Meperidine Meprobamate Methadone Methamphetamine Methaqualone Methcathinone Midazolam Morphine N-des-tapentadol N-desmethylclomipramine N-desmethyltapentadol Naloxone Norbuprenorphine Nordiazepam Norfentanyl Norhydrocodone Norketamine Normeperidine Noroxymorphone Norpropoxyphene Nortryptiline Opiates Opioid Opioid agonist Oxazepam Oxcarbazepine Oxycodone Oxymorphone Pain Management Pentobarbital Pharmaceuticals Phencyclidine (PCP) Phenobarbital Pregabalin Quetiapine Ritalinic acid Secobarbital Stimulants THC-COOH Tapentadol Temazepam Topiramate Tramadol Triazolam Trimipramine Urine Venlafaxine Zolpidem Zolpidem-phenyl-4-COOH mCPP z-drugs
Analysis of drug panels in urine samples can be challenging, and the trend towards larger panels including multiple drug classes compounds the issues faced during method development. This white paper examines a number of aspects of sample preparation, and their impact on the success of subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis of broad urine panels. Section 1 examines the applicability of various sample preparation techniques: supported liquid extraction, reverse phase SPE and mixed-mode SPE, to the various classes of drugs extracted. In addition, hydrolysis approaches: enzyme type and protocol used (time, temperature), are compared. Mixed-mode reverse phase/cation exchange SPE is widely used for extraction of basic drug classes from urine, but the inclusion of drugs and metabolites that exhibit ‘non-typical’ functionality within urine panels can be problematic. Section 2 examines the impact of various parameters (interference wash strength, elution solvent composition) on analyte retention, elution and extract cleanliness with particular focus on zwitterionic (gabapentin, pregabalin) and non-ionic (carisoprodol, meprobamate) drugs.
11-nor- Δ9-carboxy tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) 6-acetylmorphine (MAM) 7-Aminoclonazepam 96-well plate Alprazolam Amitriptyline Amphetamine Amphetamines Anaesthetic Anticonvulsant Application Notes Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Benzoylecgonine Buprenorphine Butalbital Cannabinoid Carbamate hypnotic Carbamate muscle relaxant Carbamates Carisoprodol Chlordiazepoxide Clinical Clonazepam Cocaine Cocaines Codeine Diazepam Dihydrocodeine (DHC) EDDP English Fentanyl Forensic Gabapentin Hallucinogen Hydrocodone Hydrolysed urine Hydromorphone Ketamine LC-MS/MS Lorazepam MDMA Meperidine Meprobamate Methadone Methamphetamine Morphine N-des-tapentadol Naloxone Norbuprenorphine Nordiazepam Norfentanyl Norhydrocodone Norketamine Normeperidine Noroxymorphone Norpropoxyphene Nortryptiline O-desmethyltramadol Opiates Opioid Opioid agonist Oxazepam Oxycodone Oxymorphone Pentobarbital Phencyclidine Phencyclidine (PCP) Phenobarbital Pregabalin Product Notes Ritalinic acid Secobarbital Stimulants Sympathomimetic amine THC metabolites THC-COOH Tapentadol Temazepam Tramadol Tricyclic Antidepressant Zolpidem Zolpidem-phenyl-4-COOH z-drugs α-OH alprazolam